Jamb Syllabus for Biology 2023/2024


Part A: Variety of Organisms

1. Living organisms:

(a) Characteristics


(b) Cell structure and functions of cell Components


(c) Level of organization

i. Cell e.g. Amoeba, cheek cell

ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues

iii. Organ, e.g. leaf and heart

iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive

v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas


2. Evolution among the following:

(a). Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.


(b). Protista (protozoans and protophyta), e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium


(c). Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.


(d). Plantae (plants)

i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)

ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g. Bryachymenium and Merchantia.

iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.

iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)

– Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.

– Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf)


(e). Animalia (animals)


i. Invertebrates

– coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)

– Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia

– Nematoda (roundworms)

– Annelida (e.g. earthworm)

– Arthropoda (insects) e.g. Millipedes, ticks, mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly

– Mollusca (e.g. snails)

ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)

– pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)

– Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)

– Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)

– Aves (birds)

– Mammalia (mammals)



(a) Structural/functional and behavioural adaptations of Organism


(b). Adaptive colouration and its functions


(c). Behavioural adaptations in social animals


(d). Structural adaptations in organisms.


Part B: Form & Functions

1. Internal structure of a flowering plant

i. Root

ii. Stem

iii. Leaf


(b). Internal structure of a mammal


2. Nutrition

(a). Modes of nutrition:

i. Autotrophic

ii. Heterotrophic


(b) Types of Nutrition


(c) Plant nutrition:

i. Photosynthesis

ii. Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients)


(d) Animal Nutrition:

i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water

ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.

iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)

iv. Mammalian alimentary canal

v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested



3. Transport

(a). Need for transportation


(b). Materials for transportation. Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)


(c). Channels for transportation

i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries)

ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)


(d). Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.


4. Respiration

(a). Respiratory organs and surfaces


(b). The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:

i. Plants

ii. Mammals


(c). Aerobic respiration


(d). Anaerobic respiration


5. Excretion

(a). Types of excretory structures: contractile vacuole, flamecell, nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney, stoma and lenticel.


(b). Excretory mechanisms:

i. Kidneys

ii. lungs

ii. skin


(c). Excretory products of plants


6. Support and movement

(a). Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleep movements in plants


(b). Supporting tissues in animals


(c). Types and functions of the skeleton

i. Exoskeleton

ii. Endoskeleton

iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals




7. Reproduction

(a). A sexual reproduction

i. Fission as in Paramecium

ii. Budding as in yeast

iii. Natural vegetative propagation

iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.


(b). sexual reproduction in flowering plants

i. Floral parts and their functions

ii. Pollination and fertilization

iii. products of sexual reproduction


(c). Reproduction in mammals

i. structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs

ii. Fertilization and development. (Fusion of gamates)


8. Growth

(a). Meaning fo grwoth


(b). Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.


9. Co-ordination and control

(a). Nervous coordination:

i. the components, structure and functions of the central nervous system;

ii. The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems;

iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;

iv. Reflex action


(b). The sense organs

i. skin (tactile)

ii. nose (olfactory)

iii. tongue (taste)

iv. eye (sight)

v. ear (auditory)


(c). Hormonal control

i. animal hormonal system

– Pituitary

– thyroid

– parathyroid

– adrenal gland

– pancreas

– gonads

ii. Plant hormones



(d). Homeostasis

i. Body temperature regulation

ii. Salt and water regulation


Part C: Ecology

1. Factors affecting the distribution of Organisms

i. Abiotic

ii. Biotic


2. Symbiotic interactions of plants and animals

(a) Food chains, food webs and trophic levels


(b) Energy flow in the ecosystem.


(c) Nutrient cycling in nature

i. carbon cycle

ii. water cycle

iii. Nitrogen cycle


3. Natural Habitats

(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps)


(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.


4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes)

(a). Tropical rainforest


(b). Guinea savanna (southern and northern)


(c). Sudan Savanna


(d). Desert


(e). Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.


5. The Ecology of Populations:

(a) Population density and overcrowding.


(b) Factors affecting population sizes:

i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).

ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH,



(c). Ecological succession

i. primary succession

ii. secondary succession



(a) characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)

i. soil structure

ii. porosity, capillarity and humus content

iii. Components of the soil


i. inorganic

ii. organic

iii. soil organisms


(b) Soil fertility:

i. loss of soil fertility

ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility


7. Humans and Environment

(a) Diseases:

i Common and endemic diseases.

ii. Easily transmissible diseases and disease

syndrome such as:

– poliomyelitis

– cholera

– tuberculosis

– sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.


(b). Pollution and its control

(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.

(ii) Sanitation and sewage


(c) Conservation of Natural Resources


(d) Game reserves and National parks


Part D: Heredity and Variations

1. Variation in Population

(a). Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals.

(i) size (height, weight)

(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.

(iii) Fingerprints


(b). Physiological variation

(i) Ability to roll tongue

(ii) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)

(iii) Blood groups


(c). Application of discontinuous variation in crime detection, blood transfusion and determination of paternity.


2. Heredity

(a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;

i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.


(b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;

(i) Structure

(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.


(c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.


(d) Application of the principles of heredity in:

i) Agriculture

(ii) Medicine


(e). Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.


Part E: Evolution

1. Theories of evolution

(a) Lamarck’s theory


(b) Darwin’s theory


(c) organic theory


2. Evidence of evolution

Jamb Biology Syllabus 2022 Recommended Textbook

Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O. (2001) Senior Secondary School Biology: Books 1 -3, Lagos: Longman

Odunfa, S.A. (2001) Essential of Biology, Ibadan: Heinemann

Ogunniyi M.B. Adebisi A.A. and

Okojie J.A. (2000) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3, Macmillan

Ramalingam, S.T. (2005) Modern Biology, SS Science Series. New Edition, AFP

Stan. (2004) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, Ibadan: Heinemann

Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982) Biology for West African Schools. Longman

Usua, E.J. (1997) Handbook of practical Biology 2nd Edition, University Press, Limited


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